Meteorology and weather alteration

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Meteorology is a science that studies the processes and phenomena of the atmosphere. Meteorology includes many fields: physical meteorology, dealing with physical aspects of the atmosphere such as rain or cloud formation; synoptic meteorology, analysis and forecasting of large-scale weather systems; dynamic meteorology, which is based on the laws of theoretical physics; climatology, the study of the climate of a region; aeronautical meteorology, research of meteorological information for aviation; atmospheric chemistry, examination of chemical composition and processes in the atmosphere; atmospheric optics, analyzing the optical phenomena of the atmosphere such as halos or rainbows; or agricultural meteorology, studying the relationship between weather and vegetation.

In his book Meteorologica, written c. 340 BC. BC, the Greek philosopher and scientist Aristotle was the first to record the use of the term meteorology. The works of Aristotle summarized the knowledge of the time concerning atmospheric phenomena. He wrote speculatively about clouds, rain, snow, wind, and climate change, and although many of his findings were later proven to be incorrect, many of them were insightful. The invention of meteorological measuring instruments in the fourteenth century made possible the scientific study of atmospheric phenomena, but it was the inventions in the seventeenth century of the thermometer, the barometer (a device used to measure atmospheric pressure) and the anemometer (a device used to measure wind speed) which laid the foundations of modern weather observation. In 1802 the first cloud classification system was formulated and in 1805 a wind scale was first introduced. These measuring instruments and these new ideas made possible the collection of real data on the atmosphere which, in turn, served as the basis for the advancement of scientific theories involving atmospheric structure, properties (pressure, temperature, humidity , etc.) and governing physical laws. .

In the early 1840s, the first weather forecasting services began with the ability to transmit observational data by telegraph. At that time, meteorology was still in the descriptive phase, still on an empirical basis with few scientific theories. Meteorological science was stimulated by the military demands of the First World War. Norwegian physicist Vilhelm Bjerknes presented a modern meteorological theory that weather conditions in temperate mid-latitudes are the result of the interaction between warm and cold air masses. His description of atmospheric phenomena and forecasting techniques were based on the laws of physics and provided a model for modern dynamic weather modeling. By assuming a given set of atmospheric conditions to which governing physical laws were applied, meteorologists could make predictions about future weather and climate.

In the 1940s, higher-level measurements of pressure, temperature, wind, and humidity provided detailed insight into the vertical properties of the atmosphere. In the 1940s, the Englishman RC Sutcliffe and the Swede S. Peterssen developed three-dimensional analysis and forecasting methods. US military pilots flying over the Pacific during World War II discovered a powerful, rapidly moving west-to-east air current known as a jet stream, a major factor in the movement of air masses. air. Weather radar was first used in the United States in 1949 through the efforts of Horace Byers and RR Braham. Conventional weather radar indicates the location and intensity of precipitation. Ultimately, the development of radars, rockets and satellites greatly improved data collection and weather forecasting. In 1946, the process of cloud seeding made the first weather modification experiments possible. In the 1950s, radar became important for detecting precipitation from a distant area. Also in the 1950s, with the invention of the computer, weather forecasting became not only faster but also more reliable, as computers could more quickly solve mathematical equations for atmospheric models. In 1960, the first meteorological satellite was launched.

Satellites now feed three-dimensional data to high-speed computers for faster and more accurate weather forecasts. Modern computers are capable of plotting observational data and performing short- and long-term modeling analyzes ranging from tomorrow’s weather forecasts to decades-old climate models. Even so, computers still have their capacity limits, models still have many uncertainties, and the effects of the atmosphere on our complex society and environment can be severe. Many complex issues remain at the forefront of meteorology, including air pollution, global warming, El Niño events, climate change, the ozone hole or acid rain, making meteorology a scientific field still strewn with pitfalls and unanswered questions.

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